12/01/2021

apple snail size

Maximum Size: 6 inches (15cm) The golden apple snail (Pomacea bridgesii), which is also known under the names apple snail, mystery snail and golden mystery snail, is a large, popular fresh-water snail. The Apple snails are a huge family, with many different members. Aug 12, 2014 - Explore Amanda Galli's board "Apple snail" on Pinterest. They are bigger and lighter in color compared to native snails. P. diffusa is the scientific name for the ever popular Mystery snail. Wild form snails are often striped, and some have near black shells. Any shell may or may not have stripes. By clicking 'Submit' or otherwise submitting this form you agree to the, By entering this site you declare Appears to be a light Gold snail wearing a plain Ivory shell. The Mystery’s door snugs up to the outer shell edges, rather than being drawn inside. Copy and past this question in the blank box. Apple snails Spike-topped apple snail Pomacea bridgesii: Scientific classification ; Kingdom: Animalia. Shell colours include ivory, gold and variable shades of brown and beige. What to do with a clutch of mystery snail eggs. See details. Hobbyist level: Beginner (Can be kept as your first ever underwater pet) Water temperature range: 18 to 28 °C (64 to 82 °F) [24] Because submerging developing eggs below the water reduces hatching success, manipulating the water level in agricultural fields and dammed reservoirs may provide a tool for controlling invasive populations. [18], This species negatively impacts rice and taro agriculture worldwide where it has been introduced. Apple snails vary in size and shape. [25] In China and Southeast Asia, consumption of raw or undercooked snails of Pomacea canaliculata and other snails is the primary route of infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis causing angiostrongyliasis. Another one that it came with had a shell that was thin and brittle at the edges. 2008. Aquatic Invasive Species. Came from the river Amazon where it inhabits all along the river. J. Bernatis, pers. See more ideas about Apple snail, Snail, Aquarium snails. I’m afraid of drowning it if I raise the water level. Apple Snails are often refered to as "Blue Mystery Snails" in the pet store, with little regard or information about their species. the apple snail thats in my edge is the size off a golf ball,never laid eggs,and don,t touch the plants.he also came from the same tank that the other one came from. Normal coloration typically includes bands of brown, black, and yellowish-tan; color patterns are extremely variable. Apple snails vary in size and shape. Ampullaridae. The snails are usually collected by women and children. They have a smaller, rounder shaped operculum that the snail withdraws inside its shell when alarmed. [23], "Channeled Applesnail." At the same time as this new species is spreading, the native apple snail population is shrinking. The fire ant, Solenopsis geminata, has also been observed to prey upon this species. I only have one mystery s... Apple Snail question!! Then, fill the tank with clean water, and bury a few aquatic plants in the gravel, like java moss or water wisteria. (Hope not on both questions!). This snail is not related to you’re regular ramshorn, it’s part of the apple snail family. 6 to 10 cm (2.4 to 4") Longevity. Combined with body colours, these can give an overall impression of many different snail colours, even greens. Hardiness: Quite Hardy. comm. Thas them, more balled not as enlongated cluster. See more ideas about apple snail, snail, aquarium snails. Find the perfect apple snail stock photo. Credit: Courtesy / San Antonio River Authority. There are also a few different coloured shells. They can also attach themselves to the top of the water (because of surface tension). Its eggs are bright pink in color. Snails larger than 16 mm cause damage to transplanted seedlings. The term Apple snail is often used to describe several species, including Mystery snails. Easy. It closes tightly to keep in moisture and may help save them from possible predation. Some time later the snails spread to Hawaii, South-West Asia and even Florida. [6], This species also occurs in the United States, where the initial introductions were probably from aquarium release, aka "aquarium dumping". San Antonio River Authority staff were alerted and came to investigate. Will my Blue Apple Snail hurt my Gold Apple Snails? Lv S., Zhang Y., Steinmann P. &, Zhou X.-N. (2008). Howells, R. Personal communication. [16] In natural settings, they rely on grasses and other emergent vegetation growing along the perimeter of bodies of water to lay their eggs. They eat hair algae and are effective cleaners of aquarium glass and driftwood. So... what do you think? Golden Apple Snails are excellent scavengers in large tanks with minimal plants. Mystery snails might also be called an Inca snail or Gold Apple snail, among some other names, but those in store tanks will almost always be P. diffusa. Apple snails share some characteristics in general. Each clutch contains an average of about 2,000 eggs. Additional key words: golden apple snail, management, rice, direct seeding Introduction The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (often referred to as the golden apple snail in Southeast Asia) was introduced to Japan and many other countries in Southeast Asia in the early 1980s4,5,10,14. Some Apple snails are being raised commercially for escargot, which I have seen in frozen trays, in Asian supermarkets. They prefer to eat plants all the time but can manage with almost anything for food when they must. Questions: Will it drown if water to hi to get out? Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. [19] while in tropical areas reproduction is continuous. See price £ 0.99. Some Apple snails get quite large, like P. canaliculata, which can grow to the size of a baseball. One of largest freshwater snails, the apple snail's bright pink clumps of 200 to 600 tiny eggs attach to tree stumps, pilings or other objects just above the waterline. Apple snails are the preferred type of pet snail because of their appearance and size. Apple snails are also called golden mystery snails, golden snails, and mystery snails. Difficulty. No need to register, buy now! What is the difference between an apple snail and a mystery snail? It may well be alive, even if it’s been out of water for many hours. But the colours you can find in your local stores will often be affected by the colours the store’s supplier is breeding, so you may not see some colours in some areas. Aug 10, 2010 226 0 16 Derby. Max adult size: Depending upon species. They’re also very fond of sinking algae pellets and tabs. But they all have gills too and so far, I’ve never seen one drown without access to air. Next, hook up a filter to help keep the water clean, and set up a heater so you can keep the temperature between 75 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit. Dimorphism. Then on drop down click New Topic. I see another species sold locally every year for ponds, which grows to at least twice the size of the Mystery, though I’ve not been able to find out the species name. Ivory is very pale, but not true white. Pomacea canaliculata constitutes one of the three predominant freshwater snails found in Chinese markets. Apple snail damage in rice fields was reported in 1995 from only 12 districts in West Java, ... Loss of rice seedlings due to P. canaliculata is influenced by the size and density of the snail and by plant age. [3], The native distribution of P. canaliculata is basically tropical and subtropical,[4] including Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil. [11], This species lives in freshwater lake, river, pond and swamp habitats and tolerates a wide range of temperatures. Apple Snail Care and Information - How to Keep Mystery Snails - Golden Apple Snail From Rs. Females can exceed two inches in diameter with a 3/4 ” opening. Amazon See price. The Giant’s lay their eggs underwater, like Spixis do, but in much larger, messier jelly clumps than Spixis produce. Where invasive, they can utilize crops such as rice and taro as a substrate for reproduction. 2008 Jul 9;56(13):5237-41. The antennas of the female are longer . [11], In temperate climates, the egg-laying period of this species extends from early spring to early fall. [22], Approximately 1% of the Pomacea canaliculata on sale on local markets in Dali City, Yunnan, China were found to be infected with pathogenic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in 2009. They can grow to about the size of a golf ball or in some instances, perhaps very slightly larger if they’re quite old. It may be these are due to recessive genes. Will it breed with my blond mystery snail? POMACEA CANALICULATA, P. BRIDGESI, P. PALUDOSA, AND PILA CONICA (Apple Snails) Description: Attain sizes slightly smaller than golfballs, with shell colors ranging from yellow to brown Native Range: South America Introduction: Initially introduced as food crops but aquarium release may also be responsible for invasion. 2008. [14], The shells of these applesnails are globular in shape. Black and purple are far less often seen overall than other body colours. 3cm tall x 5cms across in box used and displayed box is just what they were stored in. [5] The southernmost record for the species is Paso de las Piedras reservoir, south of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina. This is an apple snail because of its color, form, and size. Egg mass: Golden apple snail: To confirm snail damage, check for missing hills, cut leaves, and cut stems. It wants to stay half above the water line constantly. apple snails, golden apple snail, freshwater snails, spike topped apple snail: Size: can grow big up to 15 cm: Tank size 10 l for large ones or 2 gallons: Life span 5 to 10 years: Temperature: 18 to 28 °C or 64 to 82 °F: pH: 6.5-7.8: GH: 8-18: Color: most popular yellow. 2017). I think the Giant Columbians are rather decorative and find it rather amusing to watch them eat, but, just so you are warned, they’re highly voracious plant eaters that must never be placed in a planted tank. It is thought that it got its name because the aquarium market did not know what type of snail it was so they just called it a mystery snail and the name stuck. Originally found throughout the Amazon river basin, it has now spread to Hawaii, Southeast Asia and has been recently reported in Florida. They continue to grow as long as they live, but they won’t become huge, unlike some of their near relations do. I’ve never had one grow larger than the big marble you get in a set of marbles. Golden Apple Snails. Mystery Snail Basics (A.K.A. This might be due to things in the wild diet they can’t get in captivity. 1 ivory mystery/ apple snail, roughly the size of a marble great addlition to any aquarium ". Scientific name: Ampullariidae. They’re true omnivores and my Mysteries have eagerly slurped up live black worms, scuds, brine shrimp and microworms, not to mention anything at all that’s dead. Pomacea canaliculata Five views of a shell of Pomacea canaliculata, Shell diameter 8 cm Conservation status Least Concern Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Mollusca Class: Gastropoda: clade Caenogastropoda informal group Architaenioglossa Superfamily: Ampullarioidea Family: Ampullariidae Genus: Pomacea Subgenus: Pomacea Species: Pomacea canaliculata Pomacea canaliculata, commonly known as the golden apple snail or the channeled apple snail, … It will eat smaller snails like bladder and ramshorn, less efficiently than Assassin snails are known to do. How to tell if a mystery snail is male or female? They all have an operculum, or ‘door’, which they can pull inward with quite some force with their foot. The bottom of the foot may be marbled and not match the skin colour on the top side. The bird then sat atop a pillar on another pier. In: United States Geological Survey. Well, it's because they eat one source of food, an apple snail, about the size of a ping-pong ball, an aquatic gastropod. Albino and gold color variations exist. Purchasers often do not realize they can grow very large very quickly. [11], The species has been found in China since 1981. Being able to breathe air allows them to leave the water for prolonged periods of time without suffocating, either to feed or spawn ( lay eggs ). Females can … Those I’ve seen are labeled Apple snail escargot. Other Apple Snail - not sure which species but it’s certainly one of the larger ones. The island and channeled apple snails are typically larger and have a distinct channel between the whorls. To start with, technically, all Mystery snails are also Apple snails. They are picked by hand or with a hand-net from canals, swamps, ponds, and flooded paddy fields during the rainy season. [21], The snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis, is a predator of this species in South America. Gold is just one of at least a dozen different named colours, though the most commonly seen colours I know of are gold and ivory. 9 November 2013. Class: Gastropoda (unranked): clade Caenogastropoda informal group Architaenioglossa. Mystery snails have the most varied colours of any Apple snail as well, due to captive and selective breeding over the past several decades. Please leave me a comment. At dusk in Mobile's Langan Park, a snail the size of a grown man's fist begins its long, slow journey out of the water and up the concrete piling of a bridge. Can reach up to 6 inches (15.2) in shell diameter. More pictures. I found my snail dead on the rug. [23], In Isan, Thailand these snails are collected and consumed. Please ask your question on the Forum by going to top of this page and clicking on Post. Size. An egg mass may contain over 2000 eggs (Barnes et al., 2008). To distinguish golden apple snails from native snails, check its color and size. I suppose drowning may be possible but I think it’s unlikely to say the least. Nice to have if you don’t want a pile of nuisance snails. Known as Giant Columbian Ramshorns, they’re very distinct from other Apple snails, having a flat, spiral shell, very similar to the common small ramshorn. Pomacea Diffusa). The nomadic snail kites have recognized the heftier replacement and followed the food source. There are also other names in the Apple family besides Pomacea, which include two others sometimes seen in the aquarium trade. Spixis can keep the numbers of common ‘pest’ snails quite low and they don’t reproduce in large numbers themselves unless food is very, very plentiful. It was a "rescue" snail in a batch turned over to a turtle trauma centre so, not sure what it is. Shells gold, beige or browns and possibly black in the wild. Spixi’s numbers tend to balance with the number of nuisance snails around. Usually it is females seeking a spawning site that might try to crawl out of a tank, as they often lay eggs at night and if you don’t provide a place for eggs to be deposited, that’s one reason you might find a snail on the floor. J Agric Food Chem. Plan MR, Saska I, Cagauan AG, Craik DJ"Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)." [6] Adult females oviposit on emergent vegetation at night, but will also lay their eggs on rocks and manmade surfaces like boats. 2008. May reach 6 inches in shell height and is considered the largest snail on earth (Florida DOACS, 2002). They range in color from deep blue to gold and even striped. One of these is Asolene spixi, a predator. T°: 18 to 30°C or 64 to 86°F pH: 6.5 to 8 Hardness: 5 to 30°dGH. I always thought they were different snails :), Question not posted: got a new big snail, looks like my mystery snail but much darker. Breeding & raising Mystery snails (Pomacea diffusa). Volume. It does not reproduce rapidly on its own. In Hawaii, they wreak havoc when they leave the water to feed. comm. To take care of an apple snail, keep it in a 10-gallon tank that's filled with 2 inches of aquarium gravel or pebbles. Parameters. Mystery snail bodies may appear in varying shades of blue, quite pale to very dark to near black, purple or burgundy, gold through various browns to near black, beige and ivory. Other Apple snails can vary quite a bit in size and colour but the term Mystery is usually used only to describe Pomacea diffusa. Shells are usually striped but there’s an all gold variant without any. Marisa cornuarietis is the other aquarium Apple snail you sometimes find for sale. There are severe restrictions on the transport or sale of many Apple snail species because of this problem. Phylum: Mollusca. They are then taken out of their shells, cut, and cleaned in salted water. you read and agreed to the, Thanks for posting this! Pick Invertebrate Category. Web. A forum acquaintance of mine who breeds many snails once told me that if you cross a Spixi with a Giant Columbian you’ll get a plant eating monster, so I’ve never been tempted to try it. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. It’s shell is scarred. Btw, if you find your snail on the floor, put it back in the water right away. 4 years. The non-indigenous distribution includes: Lake Wawasee in Kosciusko County, Indiana;[7] Langan Park and Three Mile Creek in Mobile, Alabama;[8][9] a pond bordering the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta in Baldwin County, Alabama;[9] Little Wekiva River, Orlando, Florida; a lake near Jacksonville, Florida;[10] Miramar Reservoir in San Diego County, California; and a pond near Yuma, Arizona. When properly cared for, some apple snail species can reach 15 cm (5.9 in) diameter. [27][28], It is a part of ornamental pet trade for freshwater aquaria. The only terrestrial predator that has been observed capturing and eating apple snails is raccoon (Procyon lotor) (Carter et al. A freshly laid clutch of apple snail eggs is seen on the San Antonio River. New. Apple snails include species that are the biggest living freshwater snails on Earth. Golden apple snails have muddy brown shell and golden pinkish or orange-yellow flesh. D. Shelton, pers. Last lot broke up looked like they hatched but havent seen them in tank yet ! This fresh water snail from South America was initially introduced to Asia as a source of human food. C'est parce qu'ils ne se nourrissent que des escargots Ampullariidae, un gastéropode aquatique de la taille d'une balle de ping-pong. When their habitat changes, their shells may change, either in the shade of the colour or texture, due to different water or foods. In: United States Geological Survey. Known as Giant Columbian Ramshorns, they’re very distinct from other Apple snails, having a flat, spiral shell, very similar to the common small ramshorn. Last edited: Nov 2, 2010. dan1801a Member. Some species of Apple snails have become very invasive where they’ve escaped captivity or been dumped. [2] It is also considered as about the 40th the worst alien species in Europe and the worst alien species of gastropod in Europe. There are several ways in which you can tell if your mystery snail is dead or alive, which will be covered in this article. It’s speculated that the disease is related to their much higher levels of pigmentation. It’s not too common for them to bother aquarium plants unless they get quite hungry, so it’s always best to feed them well, especially if you have plants. Mystery Snail - Pomacea diffusa. See complete description. The Amazonian apple snail may be our grossest invasive species yet Updated May 18, 2019; Posted Sep 24, 2017 By Dennis Pillion | dpillion@al.com Betta Cube Aquarium Tank Size ( 6 inch L x 6 inch W x 6 inch H ) 4mm. [15][11], The size of the shell is up to 150  mm in length. Asolene spixi : Common Name: Spixi snail, Zebra apple snail : Size: The size of the shell varies from 0.5-1 " (1.3-2.5cm). Origin. Known as Giant Columbian Ramshorns, they’re very distinct from other Apple snails, having a flat, spiral shell, very similar to the common small ramshorn. Very dark blue to black snails also sometimes suffer a disease of the foot that erodes the muscle tissue. [17], Pomacea canaliculata is extremely polyphagous, feeding on vegetal (primarily macrophytophagous, feeding on floating or submersed higher plants), detrital, and animal matter. , Thailand these snails are popular aquarium pets because of its tank of fish, its pulled..., more balled not as enlongated cluster variable shades of brown or black... Excellent scavengers in large tanks with minimal plants color and size introduced to Asia as a substrate reproduction... Black, and cleaned in salted water tall x 5cms across in used! Regarding these snails get quite large, around the Nueva Street bridge October! Gold, shades of brown and beige 6 to 10 cm ( to... Or sale of many different snail colours, these can give an overall impression many! June 2005 atop a pillar on another pier 5 to 30°dGH Rostrhamus sociabilis, is a predator this... But the term mystery is usually used only to describe Pomacea diffusa apple snail size of. Eat smaller snails like bladder and ramshorn, it is a part ornamental! Get out fresh water snail from South America was initially introduced to Asia as a of. They have a smaller, rounder shaped operculum that the disease is related to their higher! Amounts on rotting debris and algae women and children 2, 2010 10. Rm images have muddy brown shell and golden pinkish or orange-yellow flesh that! Larger and have a distinct channel between the whorls they range in color compared native!, Argentina and brittle at the apple snail size time as this new species is Paso de las reservoir! Almost all conditions be alive, even greens snail is apple snail size flat across the top of Buenos... Either from escapes or dumping or having been imported to some places to pest! Some apple snails are also other names in the wild escargot, can... For freshwater aquaria kites have recognized the heftier replacement and followed the food.! Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the top of the three predominant freshwater snails on Earth from predation! Distribution in China was Zhongshan city, Solenopsis geminata, has also been observed capturing and apple... Being drawn inside possibly black in the blank box around the size of an apple snail because of color... Biggest living freshwater snails on Earth ( Florida DOACS, 2002 ) inches long and the is! ’ m afraid of drowning it if I raise the water to feed and not match skin... Very fond apple snail size sinking algae pellets and tabs flat across the top side think it ’ s part the. Shells, cut, and cleaned in salted water Pomacea, which can grow the... Asolene spixi, a predator of this species recessive genes canaliculata constitutes one of these is spixi... Metallic, marbled pattern and on a blue bodied snail it appears red lay their eggs underwater like! Only have one mystery s... apple snail species can reach, though they do not leave the to... And consumed describe several species, including mystery snails & Cuttlebone... my snails seem be... Up to 6 inches ( 15.2 ) in shell height and is considered the largest snail on Earth Florida. The nomadic snail kites have recognized the heftier replacement and followed the food source usually but... 2000 eggs ( Barnes et al., 2008 ) reported in Florida this question the. To any aquarium `` this might be due to things in the aquarium trade quite large, Spixis! Cared for, some apple snails overall impression of many different members ''. Chinese markets to investigate snails can vary quite a bit in size and colour but the apple! Above the water to feed this species extends from early spring to early fall with body.. Not as enlongated cluster my snails seem to be a light gold snail wearing a plain ivory shell last broke. Mystery s... apple snail '' on Pinterest Keep mystery snails - golden snails..., the species has been observed capturing and eating apple snails include that... Vote please sign in or sign up, it has been recently reported in Florida of its tank snails. Escapes or dumping or having been imported to some places to control pest.! Very dull gold, beige or browns and possibly black in the apple snails from native.! One that it came with had a shell that was thin and brittle the... In Chile since 2009 with a restricted distribution the giant ’ s numbers tend to with! A hand-net from canals, swamps, ponds, and cleaned in salted water new shell gro... Why snails. Caenogastropoda informal group Architaenioglossa trauma centre so, not moving become very invasive they... Other names in the wild nourrissent que des escargots Ampullariidae, un gastéropode aquatique de taille. Sometimes find for sale and purple are far less often seen overall than other body colours snail Earth... Amazon river basin, it ’ s lay their eggs underwater, Spixis. When alarmed one working day, on receipt of cleared funds '' Delivered anywhere UK! Water right away effective cleaners of aquarium glass and driftwood drowning it I... They were stored in the term apple snail '' on Pinterest ’ get! Cleaned in salted water large tanks with minimal plants drowning it if I raise the water ( because their... To investigate between mystery and apple snails can vary quite a bit in size and colour but term!, beige or browns and possibly black in the apple snails are a huge family, with different! ) 871-3732 2019 - Explore Amanda Galli 's board `` apple snail population is shrinking bigger and lighter in from! 86°F pH: 6.5 to 8 Hardness: 5 to 30°dGH,,. Besides Pomacea, which they can utilize crops such as rice and agriculture! What is the other aquarium apple snail channeled apple snails are the biggest living freshwater snails on Earth Florida! High quality, affordable RF and RM images been observed to prey upon this species stripes aren ’ too... Between an apple population is shrinking s a very metallic, marbled and! Cornuarietis is the other aquarium apple snail, aquarium snails afraid of drowning it if I the..., like P. canaliculata, which can grow to the size of a marble great addlition to any aquarium.! Sign up, it ’ s certainly one of these applesnails are globular shape... Of distribution in China since 1981 Southeast Asia and even Florida Crude cyclotide extracts from both affinis..., river, pond and swamp habitats and tolerates a wide range of temperatures 3/4 ”.! And cut stems ask your question on the floor, put it back in the to. 2008 jul 9 ; 56 ( 13 ):5237-41 South of the water ( because of shells! Of apple snails have muddy brown shell and golden pinkish or orange-yellow flesh mystery is usually used to... Of mystery snail eggs is seen on the floor, put it back in the diet! Turtle trauma centre so, not moving reservoir, South of the three predominant freshwater snails in... The skin colour on the Forum by going to top of this species negatively rice. Normal coloration typically includes bands of brown or near black shells it tends to ignore and... Names in the aquarium trade range of temperatures 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images mass golden... To do often do not realize they can also attach themselves to the top snail in a batch over... Lv S., Zhang Y., Steinmann P. &, Zhou X.-N. ( 2008 ) foot erodes. Balance with the number of nuisance snails around large tanks with minimal plants the largest snail on Earth Florida... Clutch of apple snails have muddy brown shell and golden pinkish or orange-yellow flesh which but! Its tank while in tropical areas reproduction is continuous aquarium pets because of tension. Are very common and available at almost all conditions # 10 Bingo!!!!!!!!! 19 ] while in tropical areas reproduction is continuous Bingo!!!. Some species of aquarium snail living freshwater snails found in Chinese markets larger.... Of a marble great addlition to any aquarium `` are extremely variable Isan, these. On another pier often striped, and cut stems Keep in moisture and may save... Clutch of mystery snail marbled pattern and on a blue bodied snail it appears.! Recessive genes if it ’ s numbers tend to balance with the number of nuisance.... Procyon lotor ) ( Carter et al raised commercially for escargot, which they can crops! Rather than being drawn inside contain over 2000 eggs ( Barnes et al. 2008! Source of human food one that it came with had a shell that was thin and brittle at the time. Throughout the Amazon river basin, it is free and takes a few.! Purchasers often do not leave the water level like bladder and ramshorn, it s. Its color, form, and some have near black shells affordable RF RM... Gold snail wearing a plain ivory shell river, pond and swamp habitats tolerates! Pet trade for freshwater aquaria to ignore Mysteries and Nerites but can ’ t unusual. More balled not as enlongated cluster usually collected by women and children do so extremely variable mystery! Leave the water line constantly the edges is up to the outer shell edges, rather than being inside! Wide range of temperatures, Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed activity... Difference between an apple snail hurt my gold apple snails are collected and consumed large size helps large.

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