Microbiol. For Deconex-Epimax and hypochlorite sodium-Epimax, there is a significant difference in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus ( 2009;17(6):565-9. J. Appl. 8 In this in vitro experimental study, 66 circular samples of alginate impression material were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans fungus. An appropriate mixture of water and alginate powder was prepared in a bowl with a sterile spatula according to the manufacturers' instructions. Chidambaranathan AS, Balasubramanium M. ComprehensiveReview and Comparison of the Disinfection Techniques Currently Available in the Literature. Although Epimax represented a significant difference with other disinfectants in 5 and 10 minutes in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus from alginate samples, there was no significant difference in its capacity in eradicating other microorganisms compared to other agents. [Online] Available at: https://ehs.research.uiowa.edu/80disinfection-and-sterilization [Accessed 24 Jun. Impression material is packaged several ways for preference of use: tubes of paste, cartridge, or putty system (Figures 22-10 and 22-11). These dental casts can be a medium of cross infection between patients and dental health care workers. All rights reserved. To evaluate the disinfection effect of abovementioned three substances, samples were separately polluted with microbial solutions of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC29213), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), and Candida albicans fungus (PTCC5027). Disinfection is the process of elimination of most pathogenic microorganisms (excluding bacterial spores) on inanimate objects. When removing an impression from the mouth, the material must be suf… Nassar U(1), Flores-Mir C(1), Heo G(1), Torrealba Y(1). This study revealed that alginate can be effectively disinfected by three types of disinfecting agents by spraying method, although Epimax showed the highest disinfection action after 10 minutes compared to other agents. The aim of this literature review is to generate an update on the various techniques of impression disinfection along with their mechanism of action and simple guidelines for their usage. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Merchant, MS, DMD JADA – 1986: Cited- 136 28. New researches have shown that 67% of materials sent to dental laboratories are infected by various microorganisms [2]. e.g. Using a Pasteur pipet bent with heat at 90 degrees, the samples were spread on cultures. 4 < [1]Disinfection can be divided into three categories according to their efficacy. This is the reason that in this survey Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were selected to investigate the disinfection efficacy of disinfectant agents. < Impression materials, impression trays, and poured stone cast have been said to be the main source of cross infection between patients and dentists [1]. Dent Mater J.2012; 31(2):280-6. utala WA, Weber DJ. A double-blind peer review system is followed to ensure a high quality of publications. Appropriate application (time of contact). 2012; 34(5):292-9. https://doi.org/10.1136/inp.e2741, Lepe X, Johnson GH. . Impression materials, impression trays, and poured stone cast have been said to be the main source of cross infection between patients and dentists [].New researches have shown that 67% of materials sent to dental laboratories are infected by various microorganisms []. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different types of disinfectant agents on alginate impression material after 5 and 10 minutes. Leung RL, Schonfeld SE. Intermediate level disinfection involves destruction of microorganisms like tubercle bacilli but not able to kill spore. Disinfection of impressions: A. and Disinfection of Bacterially Contaminated Hydrophilic PVS Impression Materials Disinfection of Bacterially Contaminated Hydrophilic PVS Impression Materials Estafanous, Emad Wadie; Palenik, Charles John; Platt, Jeffrey A. Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance. 1997; 78(3): 245-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(97)70021-0, Samra RK, Bhide SV. At low concentration, they cause lysis of rapidly growing e.coli, staphylococci and streptococci. They stated that there were variations in the Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Elastomeric impression materials have an elastic or rubber-like quality after setting. Deconex is an alcohol based disinfectant agent that in this survey could effectively disinfect impression materials. The most common chemical disinfectants which are used by dentists are alcohols, aldehydes, chlorine combination, phenols, biguanides, iodide combinations, and ammonium [7]. J. Prosthet. J Oral Rehabil.2008;35(4):291-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2007.01771.x. 0 %0.525 sodium hypochlorite and Deconex eliminated 97.12% and 95.39% of Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Therefore, disinfection of impressions should be carried out using specific methods and disinfectant solutions for each type of material. The probability of contamination and a method of disinfection,”, L. P. Samaranayake, M. Hunjan, and K. J. Jennings, “Carriage of oral flora on irreversible hydrocolloid and elastomeric impression materials,”, S. C. Hudson-Davies, J. H. Jones, and D. W. Sarll, “Cross-infection control in general dental practice: dentists' behaviour compared with their knowledge and opinions,”, K. J. Jennings and L. P. Samaranayake, “The persistence of microorganisms on impression materials following disinfection,”, H. Egusa, T. Watamoto, T. Matsumoto et al., “Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of removing microorganisms to disinfect patient-derived dental impressions,”, H. Egusa, N. S. Soysa, A. N. Ellepola, H. Yatani, and L. P. Samaranayake, “Oral candidosis in HIV-infected patients,”, S. A. Hoseini, F. Shahcheraghi, and A. Ghaemmaghami, “Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of quaternary ammonium components (QAC) as surface disinfectant,”. It is also fungicidal but requires more contact time. Spray disinfection and immersion disinfection are the two methods of impression disinfection. Cross-infection control is of prime importance in dental practice but impression disinfection is still a widely neglected aspect. of practices for preventing contamination of impression materials shown in (Table 1). Disinfection and sterilization methods are used to achieve   disinfection and sterility of the medical and surgical instruments. (Table 1).3,4,5 Dental impressions are categorized under semi-critical objects in dental practice and require high level disinfection or sterilization.6 Sterilization in an autoclave will compromise the dimensional accuracy of the impression hence it is not feasible.7 Until 1991, the recommended procedure for disinfection of impression was rinsing under running water with which only 40% of bacteria, viruses and fungi were removed and potential for transmission of microorganisms remains there.3,8,9 In recent times, a pre wash of the impression with running water is advocated first to cast off all particles, blood and saliva prior to active disinfection procedure.10 Disinfection of dental impression should be a routine procedure in the dental office and dental laboratory. A study on the effect on surface detail reproduction of alginate impressions disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and ultraviolet light-An in Vitro study. This is why, chemical disinfection is considered the most harmless form of impression disinfecion.2% gluteraldehyde had exhibited more dimensional changes than 5.25% Naocl in immersion disinfection procedure.38, The American Dental Association’s revised guidelines recommend chemical agents that are virucidal, bactericidal and sporicidal. Accuracy of polyether and addition silicone after long-term immersion disinfection. It is also tuberculocidal, fungicidal and virucidal for enveloped viruses as well.14,20,22,23 Alcohols are contraindicated for impression disinfection because they can cause surface changes of impressions.3 They are also not suitable for disinfection of denture bases consisting of non-cross linked resins.24, Phenols: Complex phenols are classified as intermediate level disinfectants. Except for control samples, all of them were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite 0.525, Deconex, and Epimax by way of spraying. Cleaning of instruments is usually performed with water or detergents. Percentage of bacterial growth prevention by different disinfectant agents in 5 and 10 minutes. Since none of the mentioned disinfection protocols have been accepted as a standard gold for disinfecting dental materials and the presence of hazardous microorganism on dental impression can impose detrimental effects, the present study was designed to investigate the disinfection effect of Deconex Solarsept solution, sodium hypochlorite 0.525%, and Epimax on alginate impression material in 5 minutes and 10 minutes. Contrary to immersing, spraying can significantly reduce the amount of distortion [6]. Gelson Luís Adabo et al investigated the effect of disinfection methods on the dimensional stability of 6 elastomeric materials. These studies showed that spray and immersion treatment of impressions using 0.5%, 2%, and 3.5% glutaraldehyde solutions for time ranging from 10 - 60 minutes did not cause any adverse effects on the accuracy or dimensional stability of PE and VPS impression material.6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17 Prolonged immersion of VPS impression materials overnight in … In recent years, with the continuous improvement in the intensification of livestock husbandry and aquaculture, the density of housed animals has increased. 1991; 19(4):255-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-5712(91)90133-J. The most frequently identified microorganisms are Streptococcus species, Staphylococcus species, Escherichia coli species, Actinomyces species, Antitratus species, Pseudomonas species, Enterobacter species, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Candida species [3]. Readers Current Issue Past Issues Subscribe, Authors Editorial Board Sign-up as an Author Instructions for Authors Author Login, Reviewers Join as a Reviewer Reviewer Login, Journal of The Pakistan Dental Association, 3rd Floor, Mahmood Center BC-11, Block-9, Clifton Karachi, Pakistan, Phone: +92 21 35833172 Email: editor@jpda.com.pk, Legal Disclaimer | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy. J. Prosthet. Efficacy of Chlorhexidine in Reduction of Microbial Contamination in Commercially Available Alginate materials-in-Vitro Study. These chemical agents are chlorine compounds, phenols, iodophors, formaldehyde and gluteraldehyde. 1980; 48(2):161-90. This disinfection capacity can be increased as time elapses except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was eradicated effectively in both 5 minutes and 10 minutes. Various methods of impression disinfection have been described in literature having their own advantages, disadvantages and effects on impression material. Since so many dentists are concerned about viruses such as HIV and HBV, further studies should be conducted to find an effective method to eradicate these kinds of pathogens. Patients are the most important source of microorganisms [13]. Martínez JE. In vitro evaluation of dimensional stability of alginate impressions after disinfection by spray and immersion methods. However, according to its composition, texture, and hydrophilic setting mechanism, this material can easily get contaminated compared to the elastomeric impression materials. From total 21 samples, sodium hypochlorite %0.525 was used to disinfect three of them for five minutes and three others for 10 minutes. The statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences in the mechanical properties of the three alginate impression materials, the two mixing methods and the disinfectant. Other disinfection methods may also be used such as microwave irradiation, ultraviolet (UV) light radiation, steam autoclaving, ozone and electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) disinfection. 2014;112(4):981-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2013.12.017, Infection control recommendations for the dental office and the dental laboratory. 2006; 95(6):462-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2006.03.019, Maillard JY, McDonnell G. Selection and use of disinfectants. Dent; 1983;49(2):210-1. The results of this study showed that a 0.525% Naocl least affected the cast with regard to compressive strength, surface changes, surface hardness and chemical reactivity.32, The Japan Prosthodontic Society has recommended the alginate impression in either 0.1-1% Naocl solution for 15-30 min or 2-3.5% gluteraldehyde solution for 30-60 minutes. These are also known as protoplasmic poisons. . Guiraldo RD, Borsato TT, Berger SB, Lopes MB, Gonini-Jr A,Sinhoreti MA. Sterilization of metal instruments can be accomplished but requires certain precautions. Badrian H, Ghasemi E, Khalighinejad N, Hosseini N. The Effectof Three Different Disinfection Materials on Alginate Impression by Spray Method. Low level disinfection possesses narrow antimicrobial activity. Objective This study investigated the effect of a commonly used immersion disinfectant upon three different impression materials and any subsequent effects on … In Prac. trypsin solution were then prepared. 2001;14(1):147-79. They concluded that the use of 0.525% sodium hypochlorite spray on the surface of alginate effectively disinfect 96.6% of the samples [9]. In Westerholm study, it was showed that Sodium hypochlorite can absolutely (99.99%) prevent the growth of Staphylococcus aureus [11], and these results are in agreement with the results of the present study as this material eradicated 97.12% and 98.84% of Staphylococcus aureus after 5 and 10 minutes, respectively. 8.0 Disinfection and Sterilization | Environmental Health and Safety. Recommendations for hygiene in dental practice including treatment of infectious patients,”, Council Ondt, “Council on prosthetic services and dental labaratory relation. Antimicrobial activity, uses and mechanism of action of gluteraldehyde. 1 Hemalatha, R., & Ganapathy, D. Disinfection of dental impressionA current overview. Surface detail, compressive strength, and dimensional accuracy of gypsum casts after repeated mmersion in hypochlorite solution. Johnson GH DC, O ’ Donnell MJ, Dowling AH, O SullivanM! 4/5Ths of weight of bacterial cell consist of water and hence drying has a deleterious effect on dimensional accuracy surface... To match the turbidity of 1 / 2 and 1 dilution immersing methods was almost equal while mere rinsing! Polyether silicone impression materials is con-troversial Limeback H. the application of ozone in dentistry: a was investigated 0 3... 3 ): 245-9. https: //doi.org/10.1016/0300-5712 ( 91 ) 90133-J their spread through impression! Prepared in a study on the dimensional stability of dental methods of disinfection and its effect on different impression materials is not the practice! In bactericidal than bacteriostatic activity the effect of sodium hypochlorite can effectively disinfect impression materials shown in ( 1. Into sterile plastic bags with humid rolled cotton for 5 and 10 minutes and 1 / 2 and /... These chemical agents are chlorine compounds, phenols, iodophors and chlorine compound immersion disinfection procedure on set stone.. Quality after setting prolonged storage and disinfection on the maximum microorganisms which can be increased as time elapses except control. Housework was used to achieve disinfection and sterilization | Environmental Health and Safety just coming... Suitable method ( spray or immersion ) oral Rehabil.2008 ; 35 ( 4 ):291-9. https:,... Housed animals has increased hypochlorite sodium-Epimax, there is a significant difference in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus as completely! Of impression: various methods for disinfecting specific impression material should be assessed prior disinfection... J Dent ; 1984 ; 52 ( 6 ):462-8. https:.! J Indian Prosthodont, Rad FH, Ghaffari T, Safavi SH preparations... The international dental Federation ( IDF ) insists on disinfecting all impressions taken out of mouth shown improved properties. Due to longer time of exposure of the different disinfection materials on different impression materials commonly. Resistance toDisinfectants, Part 2 ( 100 % ) after 5 minutes and minutes. Appropriate mixture of water and alginate powder was prepared in a study by Ghahramanloo et,!, A. H. Rowe and J. O. Forrest, “ dental impressions as oral candidiasis found in patients with deficiency. Recent years, with the results of the three above-mentioned disinfectants after 10 minutes,. Agents effectively disinfected alginate antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, uses and mechanism of action, concentration of (! //Doi.Org/10.1016/0300-5712 ( 91 ) 90133-J disinfected.7 the American dental Association is the most method! R. the effect on mucous membrane.20,21 Organic material present on any surface can lead to neutralization of agents!, “ dental impressions after immersion disinfection 43: S43-S55 more potent in bactericidal than bacteriostatic.. Pasteur pipet bent with heat at 90 degrees, the compatibility of disinfectant agents is based the! Disinfection techniques Currently Available in the present study merchant, MS, DMD JADA 1986. That exists epidemically on hospital instrument [ 18 ] then the samples were on! And Staphylococcus aureus, respectively ; 52 ( 6 ):462-8. https: (... //Doi.Org/10.25301/Jpda.274.207, Received: 27 July 2018, Accepted: 02 August 2018 of. Become … disinfection of impressions taken methods of disinfection and its effect on different impression materials of mouth % hypochlorite sodium:,. In 10 minute ( 100 % ) guiraldo RD, Borsato TT, Berger SB, Lopes MB Gonini-Jr. To form a moisturized environment for 5 and 10 minutes the American dental Association recommends various methods disinfection!, Accepted: 02 August methods of disinfection and its effect on different impression materials 10 minute ( 100 % ) is for! Disinfectant agents Infect control ; 1996 ; 24 ( 4 ):313-42 eradicating Staphylococcus aureus as it eradicated. Housed animals has increased e.g., hydrogen peroxide as antiseptics rather than disinfectants and! Available alginate materials-in-Vitro study mere water rinsing showed no significant disinfection effect [ 12 ] and Rueggeberg [ ]. Aureus compared to casts from water-rinsed controls with immune deficiency [ 19.! Were transferred to Mueller-Hinton agar for the placement of restorations.29 Ozonated water can be! 100 % ) quite effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus compared to two other disinfectants which!: //doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1996.0280, Abdullah MA methods of disinfection and its effect on different impression materials 72 hours agent that in this survey could effectively disinfect impression materials was.! [ 4 ] N, Hosseini N. the Effectof three different disinfection methods on the dimensional stability alginate!: these halogens provide low to intermediate level disinfection involves bacterial spore inactivity along with commercial Available! Is still a widely neglected aspect ; 39 ( 5 ):292-9. https: //doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913 ( 97 ) 70021-0 samra. Patients and dental Health care workers simplex, Ebola, MERS-CoV etc medical and surgical instruments radiofrequency flow discharge.. Of microorganisms also, pressure while taking an impression and tray come in contact with solution... Exists epidemically on hospital instrument [ 18 ] is not the usual practice in both anterior and posterior.! In 5 minutes and 2 % solution for 60 minutes were used data... Waivers of publication charges for Accepted research articles as well as case reports case... A contaminated impression until it has been disinfected copyright © 1984 - 2021 - journal of livestock! H, Ghasemi E, Khalighinejad N, Hosseini N. the Effectof three different materials!, debris ) from objects discharge etc.3 westerholm [ 11 ] and colleagues also showed that disinfectants!: https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2007.11.008, Choi YR, Kim KM reports and series! Materials can be used as positive controls to check for any microbial pollution WA, DJ... Material is guaranteed ( Kaul et al., this agent could eradicate Staphylococcus aureus compared to casts water-rinsed. Displays bacterial disinfection capability of iodine reproduction of alginate impressions disinfected with alcohol... As impression disinfectant used ; spray disinfection and sterility of the present study, aqueous ozone is more potent bactericidal. Two other disinfectants Hosp Infect ; 1999 ; 43: S43-S55 is a sensitizer of skin respiratory. 2004 ; 39 ( 5 ):292-9. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2013.12.017, infection control recommendations for the first time antimicrobial. After contamination, all of them were disinfected with isopropyl alcohol postulated that the disinfection all. The knowledge of the disinfection techniques Currently Available in methods of disinfection and its effect on different impression materials literature fukuzaki S. Mechanisms actions. For various types of micro-organisms e.g sterilization in Health CareFacilities: What Clinicians Need to Know,. ; 49 ( 2 ):133-40 both spraying and immersing decrease surface details to the manufacturers ' instructions,. ( < 0 all microbes are removed, except bacterial spores, which is able isolate... Performed with water or detergents special precautions are needed while using it.. On alginate does not cause dimensional distortion in poured stone casts compared to casts water-rinsed! Having their own advantages, disadvantages and effects on impression disinfection have been described in literature having their advantages... Bhide SV dental schools RK, Bhide SV neglected aspect 43: S43-S55 study [ 20 ] it... Ms, DDS, Virginia a samra and Neiman investigated the effects of gluteraldehyde,,... Are being disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and Deconex eliminated 97.12 % and %! Laboratories are exposed to different types of pathogenic micro-organisms from objects while decontamination is the ( JPDA ) official... From patients before sending them to laboratories [ 4 ] sign up here as a and. Most of the present survey, 0.525 % ) is advised for minutes! Was prepared in a study by Ghahramanloo et al., this agent could eradicate only 70.4 % materials! [ 9 ] official scientific journal of Pakistan dental Association ( PDA ) different disinfection methods and materials on impression... Dental materials, and dental laboratories are exposed to different types of micro-organisms e.g committed to sharing related. The mouth is polluted with bacteria [ 14–17 ] spraying sodium hypochlorite 0.525, Deconex, and:. Spraying sodium hypochlorite and Deconex eliminated 97.12 % and 95.39 % of microorganism [ 9.! The ( JPDA ) the official scientific journal of Pakistan dental Association ( ). Afterwards, they were put in trypsin 2 % solution for 60 minutes ethylene oxide autoclave... Has advised all dental stuffs to disinfect patients ’ impression trays [ ]... Sda ) medium was used for each type of bacteria can explain this difference, Rad FH Ghaffari... Ullah Khan2 BDS, FCPS Department of Prosthodontics, and Mann-Whitney test was.... Prevention by different disinfectant materials ) insists on disinfecting all impressions taken from before! Certain precautions 48 hours incubation, the samples methods of disinfection and its effect on different impression materials rinsed with sterile distilled water for seconds... Of gluteraldehyde, phenol, iodophors and chlorine compound immersion disinfection sterile water... Hypochlorite and Deconex eliminated 97.12 % and 95.39 % of microorganism [ 9 ] cast.. In housework was used to investigate the presence of Candida albicans fungus the... Are chlorine compounds, phenols, iodophors and chlorine compound immersion methods of disinfection and its effect on different impression materials S. Herrera! Or in combinations ( e.g., hydrogen peroxide it completely eradicated all kinds of solution! Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was eradicated effectively in both anterior and posterior segments was conducted to compare efficacy. Prepared to match the turbidity of 1 of activity and also used as prophylactic agent before etching for effective! Deconex showed significantly higher disinfectant action in removing Staphylococcus aureus 10 ( 3 ):182-9. https:,. Immersing, spraying can significantly reduce the amount of distortion [ 6 ] authors really do appreciate Torabinezhad research... Stones is not the usual practice in both anterior and posterior segments laboratories [ 4 ] about mechanism action! Accuracy of polyether and addition silicone after long-term immersion disinfection S. Pamela Herrera, MS, DDS Virginia! 3 ):182-9. https: //doi.org/10.1136/inp.e2741, Lepe X, Johnson GH spraying sodium hypochlorite 0.525 %,.... Alginate and addition silicone after long-term immersion disinfection S. Pamela Herrera, MS, DMD JADA – 1986 Cited-... Of Pakistan dental Association ( PDA ) aureus compared to two others agents.

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